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Health Inequalities


The “social determinants” of health (such as poverty) are translated into health inequalities in a number of ways including, for example, by creating barriers in access to services. We’ve called these factors “levers” for change. 

There are twice as many youth services in England’s richest areas than in the poorest


Booth, R. (2021) Twice as many youth services in England’s richest areas – survey. London: The Guardian.

Department for Health and Social Care (2021) Children whose parents smoke are 4 times as likely to take up smoking themselves. UK Government: press release.

Kossarova, L. et al. (2017) Admissions of inequality: emergency hospital use for children and young people. London: Nuffield Trust.

Public Health England (2020) Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in adolescent females and males in England: academic year 2019 to 2020. Health Protection Report, Volume 14, Number 19. London: PHE.

Public Health Scotland (2021) Births in Scottish hospitals. Scottish Government.

Scottish Government (2022) Life at age 14: initial findings from the Growing Up in Scotland study. Scottish Government: Children, education and skills division.

Stewart, H. et al. (2021) Experiences of Relationships and Sex Education and sexual risk taking: Young people’s views from LSYPE2. Research brief. UK Government: Department for Education.

YMCA (2020) Out of Service. London: YMCA.




All data correct as of 1st May 2022