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Abuse and Traumas

The unique nature of adolescence means that young people experiencing abuse and trauma in this phase of life may have different needs to younger children or adults.

One in five people experiences at least one form of child abuse before the age of 16


Asmussen K and McBride T (2021) Adverse childhood experiences: Building consensus on what should happen next. London: Early Intervention Foundation https://www.eif.org.uk/report/aces-building-consensus-on-what-should-happen-next

Balding  A and Regis D (2020) Young people into 2020. Exeter: School Health Education Unit.

Beckett H, Holmes D and Walker J (2017) Child sexual exploitation: Definition & Guide for Professionals, Extended Text. Luton: University of Bedfordshire & Research in Practice. https://uobrep.openrepository.com/handle/10547/623178

Ditch the label (2020) The annual bullying survey 2020 https://www.ditchthelabel.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/The-Annual-Bullying-Survey-2020-2.pdf

Firmin C (2020a) Contextual safeguarding and child protection: rewriting the rules. Abingdon: Routledge

Haddon L and Livingstons S (2014) The relationship between offline and online risks. In von Feilitzen C and Stenerson J (eds) Young people, media and health: risks and rights. The Clearinghouse Yearbook 2014, Goteborg, Nordicom, pp21-33

Kooth (2020) Week 10:  How Covid is affecting the mental health of children and young people. London: Kooth https://xenzone.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/150520_CYP_infographic_D4.pdf

HM Government (2017) Tackling Child Sexual Exploitation Progress Report https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/592589/Tackling_Child_Sexual_Exploitation_-_Progress_Report__print_.pdf

Hughes K, Bellis M, Hardcastle K et al (2017) The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health 2: e356-66 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29253477/

Lacey R and Minis H (2020) Practitioner Review: Twenty years of research with adverse childhood experience scores – Advantages, disadvantages and applications to practice. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,  61(2), 116-130 https://acamh.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcpp.13135

Livingston S Stoilova M and Kelly A (2016) Cyberbullying: incidence, trends and consequences. In United Nations Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children (Ed) Ending the Torment: Tackling bullying from the schoolyard to cyberspace. New York, USA, pp115-120

MacDowall W, Gibson L, Tanton C, Mercer C et al (2013) Lifetime prevalence, associated factors, and circumstances of non-volitional sex in women and men in Britain: Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Lancet. 30;382(9907):1845-55  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24286789/

NSPCC (2014) CORE-INFO: Neglect or emotional abuse in teenagers aged 13-18. London: NSPCC https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/media/1058/core-info-neglect-emotional-abuse-teenagers-13-18.pdf

NSPCC (2017) How safe are our children?  The most comprehensive overview of child protection in the UK. London: NSPCC

NSPCC (2020) How safe are our children? 2020 An overview of data on abuse of adolescents. London: NSPCC https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/media/2287/how-safe-are-our-children-2020.pdf

Ofcom (2019) Children and parents: Media use and attitudes report https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0023/190616/children-media-use-attitudes-2019-report.pdf

ONS (2020a) Child abuse extent and nature, England and Wales: year ending March 2019 https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/articles/childabuseextentandnatureenglandandwales/yearendingmarch2019

ONS (2020b) Child Physical Abuse in England and Wales Year Ending March 2019 https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/crimeandjustice/articles/childphysicalabuseinenglandandwales/yearendingmarch2019              

Radford L, Corral S, Bradley C, Fisher H, Bassett C, Howat N and Collishaw S (2011) Child abuse and neglect in the UK today. London: NSPCC

Romanou E and Belton E (2020) Isolated and struggling: social isolation and the risk of child maltreatment, in lockdown and beyond. London: NSPCC.

All data correct as of 1st November 2021