1. Home
  2.  » 
  3. Key Data
  4.  » 
  5. Public Health Outcomes
  6.  » Immunisation


Public health outcomes

In this section we present data for some of the public health outcomes that are most relevant to young people 10-24, particularly those relating to health behaviours.  Separate sections present data on life expectancy, mental health and sexual health.

Only 1 in 8 young people in the UK eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables every day


In the UK the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been routinely offered to girls aged 12-13 since 2008, and this was extended to boys from September 2019. It helps protect against cancers caused by HPV, including cervical cancer, some mouth and throat cancers, some cancers of the anal and genital areas and genital warts. Analysis from Scotland has concluded that the programme has led to an 89% reduction in preinvasive cervical disease (Palmer et al, 2019).

Rates of double-dose HPV vaccination for Year 9 girls in England fell by 23% during the school year affected by Covid-19Delivery of vaccinations to this age group is largely through school, and so immunisation has been significantly affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. In England, 64.7% of Year 9 females completed the 2 dose HPV vaccination rse in 2019/20, compared with 83.9% in 2018.19 (Public Health England, 2020c). Coverage of two doses of HPV vaccine in girls in Wales in the 2018/19 School Year 10 was 83.5%; post pandemic data are not available at the time of writing but it is clear that closure of schools has adversely affected vaccination delivery in our age group.

Secondary school age children are also due a teenage booster of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination, and a dose of the MenACWY vaccine, which protects against serious infections including meningitis and septicaemia. The MenACWY vaccine was added to the national immunisation programme in August 2015, and can be requested from the GP up until the young person’s 25th birthday. It is advised that students going to university for the first time ensure that they have had their dose. The average coverage for the school based MenACWY adolescent vaccination programme in England in 2019/20 was 58.3% compared to 88% in 2018/19 (Public Health England, 2020c).

In Wales rates seem to have been higher; MMR uptake, for a full two-dose course, was 91.7% and 91.5% for teenagers turning 15 and 16 years of age respectively during the 2019/20 school year. MenACWY vaccine uptake in teenagers turning 15 and 16 years of age during the 2019/20 school year was 85.5% and 85.7% (Public Health Wales, 2020).

All data correct as of 1st November 2021